Paper ¿Es la economía “disruptiva” una fábrica de “camareros”? (El lado oscuro de la economía “colaborativa”) Introducción: la sociopatía de la economía disruptiva



Descargar 2.25 Mb.
Página29/29
Fecha de conversión24.05.2018
Tamaño2.25 Mb.
1   ...   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29

- “Middle Class Fortunes in Western Europe” - Pew Research Center - April, 2017
Middle Class Fortunes in Western Europe

The fortunes of the middle classes in Western Europe’s largest economies are moving in opposite directions. From 1991 to 2010, the shares of adults living in middle-income households increased in France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, but shrank in Germany, Italy and Spain.


The divergent trajectories are linked to differences in how the incomes of households overall in these countries have evolved. France, the Netherlands and the UK experienced notable growth in disposable (after-tax) household income from 1991 to 2010. Meanwhile, incomes were either stagnant or falling in Germany, Italy and Spain.
Among the 11 Western European countries examined in this report, Ireland experienced the most rapid growth in income from 1991 to 2010 and the biggest expansion of the middle class. Several other countries in Western Europe also experienced large gains in household income. However, rising incomes did not translate into expanding middle classes in these countries. This group of countries includes Denmark, Luxembourg and Norway.
Overall, the middle-class share of the adult population fell in seven of the 11 Western European countries examined, mirroring the long-term shrinking of the middle class in the United States. In part, the shift out of the middle class is a sign of economic progress, irrespective of changes in household incomes overall. This is because the outward shift is accompanied by a move up the income ladder, into the upper-income tier, in all countries with a shrinking middle class.
At the same time, there is movement down the income ladder in most countries with a shrinking middle class. Overall, there is a greater movement up the income ladder than downward in most countries from 1991 to 2010, resulting in a general improvement in economic status. But there is also a sharpening of economic divisions across households in many Western European countries and in the U.S. as relatively more adults are in the lower- and upper-income tiers and relatively fewer are in the middle.
These are among the key findings from a new comparative, cross-national analysis by Pew Research Center, using data from the Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg (LIS), a research center that harmonizes and provides access to data from government surveys and other sources. The study covers the period 1991-2010 for the following countries: Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, the UK and the U.S. Estimates for 2013 for eight of these countries are presented in Appendix A.
In this report, “middle-class” adults live in households with disposable incomes ranging from two-thirds to double the national median disposable household income. Disposable income includes earnings from work, interest and dividend income, rental income, and www.pewresearch.org transfer income such as government assistance and family transfers, but subtracts income taxes and social security contributions. It is the only measure of income comparable across all countries in the source data.
Estimates of income in this report are adjusted for household size and expressed in 2011 prices and purchasing power parities. This allows for comparisons across households of different sizes while adjusting for cost-of-living differences over time and across countries. Also, incomes are scaled to reflect a household size of three for reporting purposes. The average size of a household in the U.S. is 2,5 and is between two and three in the countries in Western Europe.
By world standards, the countries featured in this report are all high income. The demarcation of their lower-, middle- and upper-income tiers is based on the relative well-being of households within these countries. Middle-income households in Western Europe and in the U.S. are in the highest income tiers globally, and most lower-income households in these countries would be in the global middle class.
Some of the report’s findings may reflect the impact of the Great Recession of 2007-2009 that was felt across the U.S. and Western Europe, perhaps most deeply in Ireland, Italy and Spain. More specifically, it is likely that income levels in 2010 were below what they might have been absent the recession in most countries.
Estimates of the shares of people who were middle class in 2010 could also be affected by the Great Recession. But the impact is muted by the fact that the income needed to be included in the middle class changes over time, rising as national income increases and falling as it decreases. As the income boundaries adjust to changes in the overall economic environment, the movement of people in or out of the middle is dampened.







































Compartir con tus amigos:
1   ...   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29


La base de datos está protegida por derechos de autor ©composi.info 2017
enviar mensaje

    Página principal