Optimización de los criterios y técnicas aplicados a la ordenación y restauración hidrológico-forestal de cuencas hidrográficas, desde sus inicios hasta el presente



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4.5. Provincial water policies
In the province of Neuquen, principally, the water policies impel the creation of hydroelectric enterprises. There are no clear policies for flood control although they happen regularly in different areas of the province. In these cases, the Provincial Government’s answer aims to offer economic investments to reconstruct damages, but not to develop preventive plans and in that way avoid new emergency situations. On the other hand, the Provincial Direction of Water Resources is forced to have a program or system of early alert, prevention and mitigation of floods and droughts and other natural catastrophes linked to the water domain, according to the water code, but at the present time there is no prevention plan for extreme situations of water nature, nor any answer to this type of situation.
The province of Rio Negro, in the Provincial Water Direction publications, show that at the moment the leasing calls for constructions aim the development and maintenance of sewage drains and drinking water, together with different maintenance constructions. It is valid to say that the construction of an hydroelectric central called Salto Andersen in the Colorado River basin is considered being in the leasing phase.36 In the year 2003, approximately 1.750.000 Argentinean pesos were destined for constructions for the control of floods and defense of the erosion of streamside around the entire province. Recently the province presented some plans of constructions for the prevention of floods and damages produced by extreme events of precipitation, being the most noticeable the Stabilization of the channel and recovery of the shore of the Quemquemtreu River (Year 2002)
In the province of Chubut, due to the disasters produced historically by the swellings and overflowing of the rivers in the towns of the parallel 42º, the provincial government, together with the national and municipal governments, adopted since this year concrete measures to avoid future damages. That is why the provincial government impelled during May, 2005 the creation of water constructions in the municipalities of Epuyén, El Hoyo, Cholila, El Maitén and Lago Puelo. The investment is of up to 10 millions of Argentinean pesos.37 In case of water emergencies, such as the one that occurred in July, 2004 in the area of Futaleufú, Lanquiñeo, Cushamen and Tehuelches, the government confronts the situation contributing with millionaire funds to palliate the disaster. Investments for sanitary constructions are also impelled, such as improvements in the sewage drains in different cities of the province like Comodoro Rivadavia, Esquel and El Maitén. Besides, the provincial government foments the possibility to carry out important constructions for the generation of energy such as La Elena project, on the Carrenleufú River and Los Monos dock over the Senguer River.
During the last years the province of Santa Cruz has kept as a priority for the development the promotion of hydroelectric projects. In April 2005, the Hydroelectric Plan of the Province was presented. The provincial project includes an enterprise on La Leona River, where a dam of the same name will be established and two on the Santa Cruz River, one in the Cóndor Cliff Paraje (progressive route km 250) and other in La Barrancosa (Km 187). The province of Santa Cruz also impels the construction of the Los Monos dock in the neighbour province of Chubut. During the end of August, 2005 an agreement between the municipality, the Agrarian Provincial Council (Consejo Agrario Provincial) and the Sub Secretary of Fishery and Harbour Activities (Subsecretaria de Pesca y Actividades Portuarias) was signed for the creation of the Study Centre of the rivers of Santa Cruz.
In the Province of Tierra del Fuego the Direction of Water Resources has been involved during the last year in a series of activities to implement sustainable management policies at provincial level. One key point was the submission of a proposal for a Provincial Water Law to address the environmental, economic and social problems provoked by the lack of regulation. New Registers of Water Works and Users and procedures for registration of new users and water works have been implemented as part of a revamped Water Administration System which is now regulating water use in the whole province. Participatory workshops have discussed water planning and management in the main river catchments. A Programme for Exploitation of Water Resources is looking at the promotion of water use linked to new employment. Funding from the National Science and Technology Secretariat has allowed the establishment of a programme for optimisation of irrigated areas, and for intensive agricultural activities.. One of the priorities in the Province is catchment protection with an emphasis on wetlands (peat bogs). Within a Provincial Catchment Management Programme other projects are focussed on integrated watershed management, monitoring of glacier areas, peat bogs and GIS with CADIC, participation in research projects (EPIC FORCE) and environmental education. Tierra del Fuego is very active in the formulation of Federal Water Policy within the COHIFE.
4.6. Research Institutions and Universities
Most important Research Centres related to water resources in the Andean Patagonic Region:
Scientific Research Centre - Centro de Investigaciones Científicas (CADIC)

http://www.tierradelfuego.org.ar/cadic
Snow, Glaciology and Environment Sciences Centre - Centro de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA)

http://www.cricyt.edu.ar/institutos/ianigla/
Underground Water Regional Centre - Centro Regional de Aguas Subterráneas (CRAS)

http://www.ina.gov.ar/internas/ssj.htm
Argentinean Dams Committee - Comité Argentino de Presas (CAP)

http://www.cadp.org.ar
Permanent Committee of National Water Congresses - Comité Permanente de los Congresos Nacionales del Agua (CPCNA)

http://www.congresosdelagua.org/
Argentinean water Resources Institute - Instituto Argentino de Recursos Hídricos (IARH)

http://www.iarh.org.ar/
Institute of Limnology Dr. Raúl A. Ringuelet - Instituto de Limnología Dr. Raúl A. Ringuelet (ILPLA)

http://www.ilpla.edu.ar/ilpla/
National Water Institute - Instituto Nacional del Agua (INA)

http://www.ina.gov.ar
Patagonian National University San Juan Bosco - Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (UNPSB)

http://www.unp.edu.ar/
La Plata National University - Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP)

http://www.unlp.edu.ar/
Patagonic National Centre - Centro Nacional Patagónico del CONICET (CENPAT)

http://www.cenpat.edu.ar/


  1. Conclusions

The juridical and institutional frame, at national as well as a provincial level, is sectorized, since it does not recognize the interdependence between the water and forest resources. The implementation of the policies of the natural resources (water and forest), at national and provincial level, is disarticulated; however the new federal framework due to the Federal Water Council is a big opportunity for the future. Water resources management does not consider the hydrological consequences of the forest management (environment impact in the forest activity) and on the other hand it does not incorporate the management of the forest cover as a tool for the hydrological management, specifically flood, erosion and landslide control.


It is necessary to incorporate an ecosystem vision in the implementation of management policies in the forest resources as well as water resources, incorporating an integrated view at watershed level. A recommendation in this sense, would be to force explicitly the incorporation of environment considerations in the making of forest management plans (in those provinces that establishes in that way), by means of an environment impact assessment. On the other hand, it is necessary to include land use plans concepts and integrated watershed management at the institutions in charge of implementing water policies, but there is a growing concern about this need. The implementation of these policies should strength the capacity of institutions in charge of the watershed management, provincial as well as local governments (municipalities).






1 This environmental service related to anticipate or reduce significantly the negative impacts of the floods, and to increase the flows during the dry season, depends on numerous specific factors. They determine if the levels of infiltration: (1) are reduced due to the erosion of the soils, (2) if the evapotranspiration are exceed, and (3) if there is increased the quantity of available water inside the flows of current (Brüschweiler et al, 2004).

2 For example, on having modified the practices of use of the land in areas where the erosion is naturally high one does not anticipate the sedimentation of the dams.

3 For example, Costa Rican society has internalized water as an abundant, infinite and renewable good. Most people are not concerned about paying new environmental adjusted feeds for economic activities, in order to increase Environmental Services Payment (ESP) implementation.

4 This land (50 hectares) is located 16 km. away from Sixaola.

5 During the first six months of 2004, San José downtown reported 15 tons of garbage in the sewers, which compilation cost US$10.286 (Funde, pers. comm. 2006).

6 Every government offered helps without considering all the technical aspects. For example, reconstructing a house is impossible if the affected person does not have a title of property.


7 An Area of Conservation is an administratively delimited territorial unit, where there are interrelated both private and state activities and there are looked joint solutions orientated by strategies of conservation and sustainable development of the natural resources.

8 The policies of the SINAC establish that local strategies must be defined and implemented in every area of conservation by participative approaches. In this sense, local communities must be are responsible not only for the decision, managing, training processes, but also for benefits generated of the natural resources efficient management. The civil society has been incorporated progressively in discussions about the adequate use of the natural resources.

9 It is also important to note that obstacles to interorganizational coordination can be particularly difficult to overcome when: (1) conflict is the result of basic ideological differences, (2) one or more stakeholders has the authority to take unilateral action, (3) constitutional issues or precedents are sought, (4) past diction-making efforts were unsuccessful, and (5) issues are threatening because of past conflict (Imperial, 1999).

10 Integrated Management of Water Resources (IMWR) is a suitable and planned management that consider water, soil and vegetation inside the natural ecosystem, where they are interrelated strongly. Likewise, an IMWR must coordinate the different land uses that develop inside the basin, attending to technical parameters of capacity of the area. To recapture the social component, to improve the conditions of life of the bordering populations to the basin, and to reduce the negative impacts of the human activities on it (Morera (1992); Calvo (1997); Porras (2000); Hartley, (2002); ICE (2001).

11 For example, some towns in Guanacaste, San José and Heredia (Proyecto Estado de la Nación, 2002).


12 Economic policies for agriculture resources have reported few changes during the last 20 years (Saénz, pers. com. 2006). These policies have supported a unilateral market opening for fresh and tried products, which implies a strong agro-exporting bias. And a total lack of a promotion strategy for the agriculture sector that must be differentiated attempting to the heterogeneous agrarian structure of the country.


13 CNE is the coordinator organization of the Executive Power, which is responsible for announcing every emergency by constitutional law.

14 Costa Rica is divided in seven geographical regions. (1) Metropolitan Area, (2) Central, (3) Chorotega, (4) Pacífico Central; (5) Brunca; (6) Huetar Atlántica, and (7) Huetar Norte.

15 Conference: “La construcción de capacidades nacionales para la gestión del riesgo en materia de emergencia y desastres”, celebrated at the Cesar Dóndoli Auditorium, Geology Centro American School, University of Costa Rica (April 12th, 2005).

16 As we pointed in section 1, data created by CNE considers only events defined as big ones, which means that little and middle size events are unregistered. Experts suggest that in fact all these events are more expensive than big events (Idem; Esquivel, pers. comm. 2005).

17 Every family that applies for this incentive needs to fulfill the following requirements: (1) to have own land and use it for building a house, (2) if the family has not own land, its current income has to be enough for buying land, and use this incentive for house building, and (3) if they have an own house, they can use the incentive for repair it, improve it, or finish it (Source: http://www.mivah.go.cr).

18 The helmet effect was described by Dra. María del Rocío Sáenz Madrigal, Minister of Public Health of Costa Rica, during her conference: “La construcción de capacidades nacionales para la gestión del riesgo en materia de emergencia y desastres”, celebrated at the Cesar Dóndoli Auditorium, Geology Centro American School, University of Costa Rica (April 12th, 2005).

19 Conference: “La construcción de capacidades nacionales para la gestión del riesgo en materia de emergencia y desastres”, celebrated at the Cesar Dóndoli Auditorium, Geology Centro American School, University of Costa Rica (April 12th, 2005).

20 Provincia del Chimborazo-Ecuador (Conforman 4 cantones: Alausí, Chunchi, Cumandá, y Guamote)

21 http://www.ambiente.gov.ec/


22 http://www.idrc.ca/es/ev-27986-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html

23 Agradecimientos a los Ingenieros Forestales Sra. Alejandra Salazar y Sr. Carlos Torres por su colaboración en la recopilación de información.


24 Estos procesos naturales comprenden el transporte de materiales (rocas, tierra, lodo, agua), son capaces de modificar el paisaje, y tienen al agua como principal elemento generador (en cualquiera de sus estados). Estos fenómenos son inundaciones, crecidas, aluviones, avalanchas, deslizamientos, nevazones y marejadas, y son responsables, en el ámbito de las emergencias y desastres, de al menos el 80% del daño a las personas en el mundo, como también de más del 85% de las pérdidas económicas (34).

25 La cobertura de bosques nativos varía desde 12% en la VII Región hasta 54% en la X Región.

26 El modelo se ajustó a la presencia de los fenómenos ENSO como variables binarias y la precipitación como variable continua. Caudal anual = -143,63 + 1,06 Precipitación anual + 2,33*Niño – 2,69 Niña

27 Un reciente estudio señala que las plantaciones chilenas retienen más de 11 millones de toneladas de suelo por año, esto significa un beneficio de más de 40 millones de dólares anuales por impactos o daños evitados al agua.

28 Las dos empresas más grandes desarrollan más del 75% del negocio forestal

29 El consumo industrial de maderas en trozos alcanza a 34 millones de m3/año y adicionalmente se consumen 11 millones de m3/año como leña (60% de especies nativas). Del total exportado un 35% corresponde a celulosa, 8.8% a tableros y 35% a madera aserrada o elaborada.

30 Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes (Ex Pan European)

31 Bosques protegidos: bajo el SNASPE existen 3,9 millones de ha, bajo la administración de privados 1,5 millones de ha. Esto es aproximadamente el 40% del bosque nativo.

32 Dirección General del Territorio Marítimo, Dirección General de Aguas, Superintendencia de Servicios Sanitarios, Ministerio de Salud.

33 Fuente: http://hidricos.obraspublicas.gov.ar

34 Fuente: http://hidricos.obraspublicas.gov.ar

35 Fuente: Legislación Ambiental de la República Argentina, Alejandro Abate, Formato digital

36 Fuente: http://www.dpa.gov.ar

37 Fuente: www.oeste.com.ar





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